The Ganaitiay entomologist



Habitat: Bolivia. Expanse, 4.00 inches.

Front of head dark, greenish black, Between the eyes, two dots of greenish white, and another dot at “collar,” followed by two more similar dots on front of thorax. Antenne, greenish black, extreme point slightly brownish. Thorax, above, dark greenish black ; beneath, black with a large yellowish spot at base of costal nervule, another also at base of costal nervule of hind wing, both with a small white dot above them. Legs, black above ; beneath, whitish, the white extending on to thorax as a dash.

Abdomen above, greenish cream colour (very prominent), black tip. Below, black with a white spot at base of each segment on both sides. Between these spots and the cream colour of upper part, are a series of yellowish dashes.

Fore wings above, greenish black, but with a decided greenish lustie covering outer half. The interspaces at hind margin edged with white.

Hind wings of same ground colour, the greenish lustre being somewhat brighter and more prominent. Covering nearly the whole of the subcostal space is a large dash of greenish white, followed by a row of similar, although smaller, spots or dashes extending in @ straight Jine, from apex to anal angle, each about one-eighth inch wide and one-eighth inch long, diminishing in size towards anal angle. These are about one-third inch from hind margin, not touching, however, the discoidal space, and form the only prominent marking of the insect. The hind margin is strongly dentated with interspaces bordered by a white line.

Under side of fore wings: black, shading into gray black at a line drawn from inner angle across the wing towards outer part of discoidal cell. In the three lower interspaces, one-fourth inch from hind margin is a patch of whitish scales, suggestive of spots.



Under side of hind wings is entirely of bronze colour, somewhat lustrous, excepting at the top portion of each interspace, where there is a whitish spot, and inside of that, one-sixteenth inch from margin, a semicircle of brick colour, very prominent. The dentations of the wing bear the white linear border appearing on upper side.

The specimens in my possession were taken some two hundred miles north from Cochabamba. In general appearance, it resembles closely Papilio Numitor, Cram., and that group, and may be a climatic variation of it, but in Vumitor the greenish-white dashes on hind wing follow more closely the contour of the hind margin, while in this these dashes are more in line with a line drawn from apex to anal angle. My specimens are invariable, showing no difference in the suffusion or size of dashes. Dynamine albidula, sp. nov.

Habitat: Bolivia, near Sicasica. Expanse, 1.25 inches.

Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen above, blackish with gray hairs ; beneath, nearly white. Antenne, black with white annulations at the base of each joint. Club, tipped with tawny. Legs, white.

The lower portion of the fore wing is white, from a line drawn from a point close to the base on inner margin, and extending upwards to and along the median nervure to end of discoidal space, then curving down- wards to lower angle, meeting inner margin one-sixteenth inch from angle. ‘The rest of the wing is black with white spots. The discoidal space is heavily dusted with lustrous greenish-blue scales. In the centre of the space is a small white spot. Midway between apex and base is a large white spot, extending from costa towards hind margin, and directly over the summit of the lower white area. Just within hind margin, one- third distance from apex to lower angle, is a smaller white spot, and there is another below it, one-third distance from lower angle to apex. The latter of these merges into the white area of the lower portion of the wing.

Upper side of lower wing is entirely white, excepting a small area of black at the very base, and a narrow border of black along hind margin. ‘This border is black at the upper angle, and turns to grayish at the lower half, disappearing entirely just before it reaches anal angle. Outside of this, on the edge of the margin, is a white thread.

The white area of upper side of fore wing is duplicated on under side. The black of the upper side gives way to a great extent to tawny. The discoidal space is jet black at its upper portion, tawny at basal portion,


the black extending down along the median nervure towards base. In the centre of the black area is a white spot. Separating the black from the tawny is a thread of very lustrous greenish-blue, nearly silver. This tawny colour extends to costa, the costa being tawny up to apex. A greenish-blue lustrous line extends from base along costa for one-quarter inch. ‘The large white spot of upper surface is repeated. ‘The first white spot at hind margin of upper surface is repeated, but suffuses strongly upwards to the costa, forming an apical band of white. At inner edge of this band is a heavy tawny line, the costal and lower portion of it tipped with lustrous greenish-blue scales. The lower white spot is the same as on upper surface. The hind margin has a black thread at its edge, and within this a line of tawny, edged on its inner side by a thread of the lustrous scales.

The lower side cf lower wings is the same as upper surface, except the black is replaced by tawny, and the marginal border is edged on its inner side by a thread of lustrous greenish-blue, with a suggestion of a black thread within it.

Type, one specimen ; taken October ist, 1899.

Amarynthis muscolor, sp. nov.

Habitat: Bolivia, five days travel north from Cochabamba. Ex- panse, 1.25 inches.

Head, thorax and abdomen, nearly black, with approach to dark mouse colour on top. Antenne, black, with slight white annulations at base of each joint. Legs, black.

General ground colour of upper surface, a dark mouse colour, with black markings. Costa of fore wings of ground colour. Hind margin, without border, except a slight linear black line and a fringe of hairs. One-eighth inch within margin is a semi-distinct black line, extending from tip down to inner margin, and another the sante distance within this. The discoidal space contains four distinct black transverse lines, the outer two joining at top and bottom, forming an egg-shaped figure. From the lower junction of these, a black line extends downwards at right angles to the costa to the submedian nervule. The inner two of these discoidal lines do not join, but each extends downwards to sub- median nervule. There is a suggestion of still another line, nearer the base, extending also to the submedian nervule.

Upper surface of hind wings nearly duplicates that of fore wings. The hind margin with its two inner lines and hairy fringe is the same.


The inner line forms a continuation of the line of fore wings which extends downwards from the egg-shaped figure, noted above. The outer line of the inner two lines mentioned as crossing the discoidal space of fore wings extends across the wing from costa to anal angle, where it joins the two broader lines. Within this, in discoidal space, are three lines, and a suggestion of a fourth near the joint. Inner margin, of ground colour, fringed with hairs.

The under surface is brilliant, the outer half of both wings being sky blue with a mother-of-pearl lustre. The costa of fore wing is mouse colour, with a linear dash of sky blue extending upwards from base. Hind margin is same as on upper surface, except that the slight hairy fringe shows whitish. The inner half of wing is blue-black. The dividing line between the inner and outer half is broken at the first median nervule, forming a jut. The discoidal space contains four sky blue spots, the second and fourth from the base being very prominent. Below the second one, above the submedian nervure, is another spot of the same colour. The space above inner margin is mouse colour, some- what suffusing the blue-black of inner half of wing.

Under surface of hind wings much the same. The border of hind margin is same as on fore wings, but the first border line of the upper surface is duplicated. The line separating the blue-black and sky blue is continuous, extending from midway between apex and base to anal angle. The discoidal space contains but two sky blue marks, which are dupli- cated in a less degree in the space next below. The inner one is also duplicated similarly in the space above the discoidal space. The sky blue of outer half of wing extends upwards somewhat, along inner margin, and also suffuses the lower portion of the blue-black ground.

Described from three specimens in my collection from Cochabamba district, 1899. '

Eurybia hari, sp. nov.

Habitat: Bolivia, north of Cochabamba. Expanse, 2.15 inches.

Head and eyes, dark fulvous brown, with a “collar” of reddish- brown yellow. Antenne, nearly black, with yellowish points. ‘Thorax

and abdomen, dark mouse colour, somewhat lighter underneath. Legs, the same.

General ground colour of wings, dark mouse colour, with a border (interspacing) of reddish-brown yellow, covering nearly one-third of both fore and hind wings.


Costa of fore wings, dark mouse colour. Inner two-thirds of wing the same, excepting a prominent black spot in discoidal space, sur- rounded by a reddish-brown yellow ring, and outside of this a semicircle of same colour. Hind margin has a linear border of ground colour. The interspaces of hind margin contain a dash of reddish-brown yellow extending as far as discoidal space in upper three interspaces and paral- lelling downwards. These dashes form practically a broad band cover- ing outer third of wing, the nervures of ground colour only showing between them. The outer end of these dashes contains a black arrow- head, small at top interspace, and increasing in size in lower interspaces. The inner end of these dashes contains a black dash, increasing in size in lower interspaces.

The hind wings duplicate these markings, with the following excep- tions: The discoidal spot is much less prominent. The semicircle out- side of it is missing. The linear border is also missing, the reddish- brown yellow extending clearly to margin.

The under side of both wings is the same as upper side, excepting that the ground colour is much lighter, and the yellowish portions suffused somewhat with ground colour. The discoidal spots are more prominent owing to the lighter shade of the background, rather than to any chavige of their own.

The general appearance is close to Hurybia Jemina, Hew.

Described from two specimens in my collection, secured by my collector, Mr. William J. Gerhard, at a point five days north from Cochabamba, Bolivia. In all the collections examined, including the largest collections in this country and in England, only one of this species was found, that being in Mr. Hewitson’s collection, unnamed.


Although the announcement that the Colorado beetle had been discovered at Tilbury Docks (near London) must have given rise to some apprehension on the part of agriculturists in general, and potato- growers in particular, we are able to state, as the result of inquiries, that there now exists no cause for alarm, the prompt action of the Board of Agriculture having succeeded in exterminating, so far as is possible to judge, the dangerous insect. Little, if any, damage was done by this visitation, which seems to be the first for fifteen or twenty years. The land around Tilbury Docks is not agricultural, and if potatoes are


cultivated it is by the labourers who obtain allotments for the purpose of growing vegetables for their own consumption.

The story of the discovery of the Colorado beetle at Tilbury is briefly this: Situated at the north-east corner of the docks belonging to the London and India Dock Company, are some allotment gardens, occupied by employés of the company for the consideration of a “peppercorn” rent. Whilst gardening in one of these plots, a man came across what to him was a strange insect, unlike anything he had seen before. In his perplexity he made inquiries, the result being that the Board of Agriculture were communicated with. That body submitted the insect to their experts at the Natural History Museum, at South Kensington, who pronounced it to be the Colorado beetle. Representa- tives of the Board of Agriculture were despatched to Tilbury immediately, and they made a most careful examination, not only of the land affected, but of the surrounding area, in which work they were accorded every assistance by the officials of the dock company. ‘The plots upon which the beetle had been found were first dealt with, all the vegetation being cut down, made into small heaps, and burnt with the help of hundreds of gallons of oil. The ground was afterwards ploughed vigorously, and minute care was taken in destroying the insects. Tne land adjoining received similar treatment. So complete and thorough were the means adopted that when the inspectors of the Board of Agriculture left the scene they expressed in no equivocal terms the conviction that the dangerous pest had been wholly annihilated.

How the beetle came into this country is, of course, a matter for conjecture. It may, however, be reasonably assumed that it was imported in one or more of the American boats whieh call at Tilbury, but, although the transatlantic steamers were searched, no trace of the pest could be found. '

All persons occupying land in the vicinity of Tilbury have been warned to look out for the beetle, and.if there should be another outbreak to give immediate notice to the Board of Agriculture through the police. The penalty for disobedience involves a penalty not exceeding £ 10, and it should also be remembered that keeping or selling

any living specimens constitutes an offence under the Act, and is punishable by a fine not exceeding a similar amount. The insect is known to most people as being somewhat like a large ‘“lady-bird,” having longitudinal black lines down the wing-cases, the underneath being of a yellowish tint.—Dai/y Telegraph, Sept. 5.



Preoccupied by Miomantis, Blanchard. D’Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., VI., Ins., p. 209, 1842 (Coleoptera). ‘To fill the deficiency, | propose the name Ca/idomantis.

Harpax, Serville. Ann. Sci. Nat., XXII., p. 45, 49, 1831.

Preoccupied by Harpax, Parkinson. Organic Rem.,1811 (Mollusca). I have not been able to examine the first edition of Parkinson, but in the second the name H/arpax occurs on page 221 of volume III. To replace Serville’s genus, I propose the name Australomantis.

: PHASMID&. PHANTASIS, Saussure. Miss. Scient. Mex. Orth., p. 188, 1872.

Preoccupied by Phantasis, Thoms. Essai Classif. Cerambyc., p 25, 1860 (Coleoptera). The name Hesperophasma is proposed to fill the deficiency.

ACRIDID&. Akentetus, McNeill. Proc. Davenp. Acad., VI., p. 225, 1897.

This generic name has been emended to Acentetus (Scudder, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci, XXXV., p. 45, 1899), in which case it is preoccupied by Acentetus, Cabanis (Mus. Hein., LV., pt. 1, p. 102, 1862), in Ornithology. This instance should help to deter the lovers of emenda- tion and purity, the inviolability of the name being the easiest and most satisfactory method in this as well as all cases where a typographical error is not evident.

ALPHA, Brunner. Ann. Mus. Cio. Stor. Nat., Genova, XXXIIL., p. 121, 1893. <

Preoccupied by A/pha, Saussure. Smith. Misc. Coll., XIV., p. 121, 1875 (Hymenoptera). In allusion to the habitat of some of the species, I propose the name Cordid/acris.

The genus Beta of Brunner (p. 121) is also antedated in the same way (Misc, Coll., XLV., p. 88), but as his name has no type or included species designated, it cannot be regarded as thoroughly established. IcHrHYDION, Saussure. Revue et Mag. de Zool., p. 390, 1859.

Preoccupied by Jchthydion, Dejean. Catal. Coleopt., IL, 1833 (Coleoptera). In the third edition of Dejean, the name is found on page 223. ‘Toreplace the preoccupied name, I propose the term /chthyotettix.



Eremopia, Serville. Orthopteres, p. 704, 1839.

Preoccupied by Zremodia, Stephens. Catal. Brit. Ins., Lepidoptera, p. 104, 1829 (Lepidoptera). The next available name is Zmethis, Fieber, Lotos, III., p. 128, 1853.

XIPHOCERA auct ( Xiphicera).

The use of this name by Latreille (Fam. Nat. Regn. Anim., p. 415) is merely in the French form Xyphictre, and as far as I can ascertain, he never used it Latinized in any of his later works. Lamarck is the first author I have found who Latinized the name, Xiphicera dating from him (Anim. Saus. Vert., II. ed., IV., p. 444, 1835). The form generally quoted Xiphocera (Burmeister, Handb. d. Entom., II., p. 612, 1838) is preoccupied by Xiphocera, Macquart. Dipteres, L, p. 279, 1834 (Diptera).

TROPINOTUS, Serville. Orthoptéres, p. 617, 1839.

This name is generally quoted as. Zropidonotus (Stol, Syst. Acrid., p. 14, 1877), but the emended form is preoccupied by Z7opidonotus, Kuhl. Wagler’s Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 179, 1830 (Reptiles).

TETTIGONID&. ScH@NOBATES, Saussure. Revue et Mag. de Zool., p. 209, 1859.

Preoccupied by Schanobates, Blackwall. Ann. and Mag., Nat. Hist., VI., p. 343, 1850 (Arachnida). In place of the preoccupied name, I propose Anabropsis.

PSEUDANCISTRUS, Bolivar. Artr. Viaje Pac., Neur. y Ort., p. 82, 1884.

Preoccupied by Pseudancistrus, Bleeker. Ned. Tijds. Dierk, I., p. 78, 1863 (Fishes). I suggest Po/yancistroides to replace the preoccupied name.

AMAURA, Brunner. Monogr. der Phaneropt, p. 247, 1878.

Preoccupied by Amaura, Moller, Ind. Moll. Greeul., p. 7, 1842

(Mollusca). The name Zigocatinus is proposed to fill the vacancy. GRYLLID. APHONUS, Saussure. Miss, Scient. Mex., Orth., p. 466, 509, 1874.

Preoccupied by Aphonus, Leconte. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.,

VIII., p. 21, 1857 (Coleoptera). To replace the preoccupied name, I propose Aphonogryllus.

Dyscopnus, Saussure. Miss. Scient. Mex., p. 438, 1874.

Preoccupied by Dyscophus, Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat., V. ser.,

XV., art. 20, p. 10, 1872 (Reptiles). In place of Saussure’s name, I propose Dyscophogry/lus.



In the CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST for December, 1894 (Vol. XXVL., page 329), I presented the species of Psychoda then known to me from Long Island, N. Y. In the following year, in the November number (Vol. XXVII., page 324), I added some notes and described one more species. Since then nothing has been published on our Eastern species. Prof. Kincaid, however, has been active in studying the Western species.

During the past few years I have collected them at Washington and vicinity, and obtained three new species as well as many of those previously described. I now give a table of all the Eastern species, twelve in number, with descriptions of the three new forms :


es as ETS Sa TA TH 2.

Gray-winged species. . bp Piet soak Se CAC SC UOENEUE RS Vote ae

2. Wings with iridescent siites, hind t tarsi eat antl white Peet nitida.

Wings without iridescent scales. Re ke eS OR bd? been Se Saw ecke OEM

3. Hind-tarsi wholly pale sethaialahin or - whitieh a rer ere Tete)

Hind tarsi black or only partly pale.. ee > Panis ine

4. Two black patches on the wings eine the alin. Ape sree

No black patches. . ae 2 Se . .albitarsis.

5. Hind tarsi wholly bind, wings ah pare all black. re.

Hind tarsi with some white marks, wings and fringe ‘marked with

DER Gua S Eee oe tobe es Sw Rawt Mrawed bes vcdaeeen sel ae

8: —§ AR ore ree cr etme

Thorax black. . Reece bs a REL os Sb, a0 basco bbe ORS 7. Fringe on salaidiag margin 5 Caches mis with white hair ;

wings banded with pale, legs pale. . aku . - Slossone.

Fringe on posterior margin more whitish : ated siete with distinct black dots, wings not Sing banded, though with scattered white

hair; legs black. . REA uk SOIR el ace 8. Wines silted our. signs Si tcal BF rs kame Reigunbicas ocarsnins eas Sg a Wings marked with black. hike os wasdiies ho ke Oe

g. Larger; at least two sallideagters long; Mnes< on hed ts margin fly as long as usual.. papi tebe + GHG Rao WRENS Mowe denLee 9d ont . cinerea.


Smaller; less than two millimeters ‘nn teas on hind margin rather short. : .minuta. 10. Hind tarsi i wiah nok at bane ond ia wings s handed, wits distines dots at ends of veins, but not two spots on margins ate mid- Wa ary ie ksh dae Xia dene OORT ao: Vanes Bad . .Signata. Hind tarsi i unmarked (patiiniieliis ere at eres of veins; wings scarcely banded, no ‘basal black band, nor two spots on margins beyond middle. . : ; .alternata. Hind tarsi ‘hes donk eneme: wings : wih a bebe black band, beyond the middle a black spot on each margin, and one or two Na hx a sddnn du yee habeas ah ie sc pbseee deueme opposita. Psychoda cinerea, Banks.—This species is known by its uniform pale appearance and average size. It is common at Washington, D. C., and Falls Church, Va., in June, and occurs at Ithaca, N. Y. Psychoda minuta, Banks.—This is our smallest species ; I have seen a specimen from Mesilla, N. Mex. (Cockerell). Psychoda alternata, Say.—This species is common at Falls Church, Va., near houses, in June. It also occurs at Ithaca, N. Y. Eaton has decided that one of the common Eiropean species (P. sexpunctata, Halid.) is identical with P. a/ternata. The latter name has the priority. Psychoda signata, n. sp.—Head and thorax clothed with white hair, some tufts of gray at bases of wings; antenne white, about as long as width of wing ; legs white, last few tarsal joints biack, and a black ring on base of the first tarsal joint of hind legs; abdomen clothed with white hair. Wings marmorate with pale gray and blackish, rather thinly clothed with hair; a blackish patch near base, another rather before the middle from costa to centre of wing, one on posterior part about behind this one, a long one along the apical costal third of wing, often interrupted by three pale spots, and a few small patches ori the apical third of hind margin ; all these spots are blackish, irregular, and of indistinct outline. The fringe .on costal margin is largely gray, but with two white patches, and the apex white; on middle of hind margin is a long white portion, the rest of the fringe is blackish; the fringe on the hind margin is about one-third the width of the wing. Length of wing, 2 mm. A few specimens taken near Washington, D. C., in May. Psychoda opposita, n. sp.— Head and thorax clothed with pale gray hair; antenne thick, gray, longer than width of wing; abdomen clothed with rather short gray hair ; legs brown, none of the tarsi marked with


white. Wings thickly clothed with pale gray hair; near base is a band of black hair, heaviest behind; slightly beyond the middle of the wing there is a black spot on the costal margin and another opposite on the posterior edge, the latter rather the larger; the extreme margin around the tip appears more or less black. The fringe is mostly pale gray, or almost white, on the hind margin; on the base of costal margin it is dark gray; that on posterior margin is almost one-half the width of the wing. Wings rather narrow and acute at tip. Length of wing, 1.7 mm.

Taken at Washington, D. C., on the bark of trees, in the early part of August. Easily known by the two black spots on each wing.

Psychoda albitarsis, Banks.—I have seen specimens only from the type locality, Ithaca, N. Y.

Psychoda marginalis, Banks.—I have only the types of this species, from Sea Cliff, N. Y. It is very distinct by the two patches of black hair on wings.

Psychoda Slossone, Williston.—My specimens are all from New York.

Psychoda superba, Banks.—This handsome species is very common at Washington, 1D. C., from June to August, on the bark of large trees. Psychoda bicolor, Banks.—I have seen only the types from Sea Cliff, N. Y. .

Psychoda nigra, Banks.—I have taken several specimens of this species at Falls Church, Va., close to a stream, in June. The fringe on the hind margin of wings is very long.

Psychoda nitida, 1. sp.—Thorax in front densely clothed with toda gray hair, behind at the bases of wings it is darker, often black. Abdo- men black, with jet black hair. Legs black, with black hair; on the basal joints of all tarsi are some white scale-like hairs. Wings clothed with black, and some iridescent scales showing a bluish, greenish or coppery hue, according to the light and position. Fringe black, white at tip of wing. Tips of veins usually show heavier patches of black hair or scales. Antenne slender, moniliform, slightly longer than the width of wing. Wings moderately broad, scarcely acute at tip, the fringe on posterior margin being about one-fourth the width of the wing.

Length of wing, 2.6 mm.

This species is found at Washington, D. C., on the bark of large trees, in July. The iridescence of the scales on the wings at once sepa- rates it from all our other forms.



There never yet was anything new or revolutionary advanced or suggested that was not met with a protest” from some quarter. When machinery was introduced the hand-workers protested; when railroads supplanted stage coaches the coachmen protested ; and so on. So we never had a new list in any order of insects, where changes in nomen- clature were made, which was not denounced by someone who found himself or herself compelled thereby to take new views or learn new names.

Of course, protests have their uses, and are always interesting ; so, that by Mr. Heath, in the September number of the CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, was carefully read by me. Of course, it should really be answered by Dr. George D. Hulst ; but he is, unfortunately, dead, and as he was a very good friend of mine, I will do the best I can in his behalf as well as my own, for I must plead guilty to being an American, and am uneasily suspicious that, since I happen to know about Zzphro- clystis, 1 must be included among the pseudo-savants.

Let me say first of all that Mr. Heath has been for some time a very good correspondent of mine, that I have found him always open-handed and open-minded, ready to do all in his power to further entomological science, anxious to aid, and willing to be aided; therefore, whatever I may say here is not meant as a reflection upon him—only an appeal to his natural love of justice, and a plea that he do not scold too hastily.

A protest always carries weight in proportion to the authority or knowledge of him that makes it, or the force of fact or argument with which it is backed up. Now, what does Mr. Heath really protest against? Specifically, only the use of Zephroclystis is mentioned, but inferentially other new” and unfamiliar names are included in the ban. Tephroclystis is not so well known perhaps as Zufithecia, though it may rival pugs” in familiarity; but would it not have been fair for Mr. Heath to show, first, that it is really a new name, and second, that there was no sound reason for the change other than that it did not mean pugs.” Before making his protest and scolding American pseudo- savants he should have made sure of his ground, and become genuinely “savant” himself. Had he done so he would have found that Zephro- clystis is a Hubnerian term far antedating Zupithecia, Curtis, and that, following the law of priority, Hubner’s name simply had to be used. If


it be objected that nomenclature ought not to be disturbed, and things ought not to be upset, it might be in order to suggest that Lord Walsing- ham and Mr. C. Hartley Durrant, both good Englishmen, have been the greatest disturbing factors of the decade so far as reinstating Hubner’s names is concerned. A great part of Mr. Heath’s scolding in the second paragraph, therefore, applies to them more perfectly than to any Ameri- can entomologist. Finally, it may be noted that in Staudinger and Rebel’s catalogue, just issued, Zupithecia is replaced by TZephroc/ystis, Hbp., and Ch/oroclystis, Hbn. Dr. Hulst was, therefore, neither arbitrary nor singular in using the term.

I am greatly afraid that, unless he wishes to remain solitary, Mr. Heath must give up Zupithecia, though there is no canon of nomencla- ture that opposes his hold on pugs.”

American entomologists and American naturalists generally are accused of being narrow, and confining their ideas ‘“ to their own little collections,” etc., and this charge is just about as well based as the other. The truth is there are no broader students, literally and other- wise, to be found anywhere than in America ; which is not saying that we do not have the other kind as well. But specialists are needed as yet where so much material remains undescribed, and the would-be mono- grapher of a world-wide fauna finds himself very frequently compelled to limit his ambition by the wealth of new local material comiag in to him.

There are many of the newer entomological recruits who do not realize the difficulties with which the earlier students had to contend. Before 1860, almost all American Lepidoptera were described in foreign publications, from Linné to Guenée and Walker. So, of necessity, the American student became familiar with the general world classification to that date. For years afterward everything was compared with European species, and, so far as possible, American forms were identified with those of other countries. Students like Zeller, Speyer, Moeschler and Staudinger co-operated, and the charge that American work was done without regard to what has been done elsewhere is simply absurd.

Of course, as in all countries, the work of special students was more or less confined to the local fauna. The fact that in so many countries work was simultaneously done has resulted in duplicating descriptions of similiar structural combinations under different generic names. It is the work of the student now, to collate and systematize, as Sir George F. Hampson is doing with the British Museum material at command. This


will, of necessity, cause some change and shifting of names. I am led to say further, that no students have travelled so much to make com- parisons as have the Americans. Grote, Fernald, Hulst and others, as well as myself, have visited all the European collections some of us more than once and have spent dollars, pounds, francs and marks in painful number to gain that broad knowledge for which we are now dubbed pseudo-savants.”

Now, I doubt whether I would have imposed all this upon the readers of the CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST except as a sort of introduction to another point, which the following quotation from a correspondent’s letter will make clear: ‘In sending specimens to be determined in the customary way (the namer to have the privilege of retaining any speci- mens he may desire), if I send a species new to our fauna, does custom require its return to the sender, or is the recipient to keep, name and describe it—i. e., stea/ it bodily?” The italics are as in the original.

Now, how many persons who have asked that same question, and who have found fault with the answer, ever really understand what they are asking when they send in a box of insects numbering anywhere from 25 to 250 specimens for determination to one who is under no sort of obligation to do it ?

First, they draw upon a store of knowledge that has been acquired by over twenty years of study ; they demand the time necessary to make comparisens, to unpack, repack, often the replacement of a defective outer box or a new cover; very often the payment of return postage, almost always the payment of correspondence postage. Second, they often expect comments or information concerning the species, its rarity, value, larva or its life-history, and other matters too numerous to mention.

And in return for all this, what do they offer? In many cases noth- ing at all; but rather claim it as a right; in other cases, permission to retain such as they have in duplicate !

I have frequently spent a solid half day naming a box of specimens in which there was not a single example that was of use to me! I need hardly say that I could have found more profitable employment for my time. In Noctuids, the collection under my charge at New Brunswick is, perhaps excepting that of the U.S. National Museum, the most com- plete in the country. Of the Eastern and Central U. S. species, not a dozen are lacking ; but that dozen I need badly. Once or twice each year, out of hundreds of species that pass through my hands, I find one


or two of the desiderata. It is the only pay I ask,— permission to retain such as are needed for the collection, and I do not consider it excessive. When I say that during the winter months I frequently get half a dozen sendings in one week, and often spend an entire day of ten hours in making determinations, the extent of the labour imposed on me may be estimated.

I wish it to be distinctly understood that I do not object to making determinations ; it is a real pleasure to me to look over a lot of material, especially if in good condition and from a new locality; but I do feel sometimes that my work is not appreciated, and that an insect or two retained for the collection is rated exceedingly high when grumblingly yielded in return. It has occurred to me that where I have spent an hour or two in determining a species as new, and have given its genus, the collector to whom I returned it described it without even crediting me with the generic reference. Nowadays I give no such references.

Of course there are exceptions to all rules, and so many of my correspondents are liberality itself, giving me absolute disposal of the material sent for study, they will not apply what I have said to themselves, and will, I think, testify that I do not often abuse their confidence. I will repeat, however, that Mr. Heath comes in with the exceptions, and is a persona grata on my list. I cannot promise to be influenced by his protest, but I can recommend him as a very amiable and satisfactory correspondent.


In his paper on The Food-plants of the Butterflies of the Kanara District of the Bombay Presidency,” Mr. L. de Nicéville, of Calcutta, states (page 190) that the choice of the food-plant by the butterfly, in the case of many of the ZLycenida, is largely dependent upon the presence of the particular species of ant with which it lives in harmony in its larval condition. If the right plant has no ants, or the ants on that plant are not the right species, the butterfly will lay no eggs there. Some larve will certainly not live without the ants, and many larve are extremely uncomfortable when brought away from their hosts or masters. In many cases it is just as important for breeding purposes to know the right species of ants as to know the right food-plant. In Kanara this is particularly noticeable in the cases of Castalius ananda, Zesius chrysomallus, Aphneus lohita and Catapecilima elegans. C. ananda


is ‘protected’ by aunts of the genus Cremastogaster. On one occasion Mr. Bell was collecting larve at Katgal, and the ants were principally on Zizyphus rugosa (Nat. Order Rhamnea), but were also swarming all over six or seven different species of trees all around, and on all of these trees there were larve of C. ananda covered with ants and eating the leaves of the trees in every case. Since then he has noticed the larve of this butterfly eating the leaves of many different plants and always in company with the same species of ants. With regard to the other butterflies mentioned above, the females first look for the right species of ant, while the species of food-plant seems to be quite a secondary consideration, at any rate to a considerable extent. The larve of Zesius may be found on very nearly any plant that harbours the large red ant, Ecophylla smaragdina, so much so that Mr. Bell has often had a suspicion that the butterfly larvae will occasionally eat the ant larve, though he has not actually seem them do so. The larve of the other two butterflies are only found on plants affected by ants of the genus Cremastogaster. The larve of all the four species are often found in the ants’ nests, and their pupz occasionally.” Mr. de Nicéville then gives a list of twenty-seven species of Lycenide, twenty-four of which are attended more or less frequently by ants.

As long ago as 1878, Mr. W. H. Edwards gave in this magazine (Can. Ent., Vol. X., pp. 131-136) a most interesting detailed account of his observations on the larvee of Lycena pseudargio/us and the attentions bestowed upon them by four different species of ants. The object of the ants was to obtain the sweet fluid extruded by the larve, and in return they warded off enemies threatening the caterpillars in their charge.


Mr. S. H. Scudder also gives an interesting \‘‘ Excursus” on this subject in his great work, ‘‘ The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada,” page 962, Excursus XxXv.


In the paper already referred to (page 247), Mr. de Nicéville gives a list of eight genera of Lycenide which have the pupa suspended by the cremaster alone with no median girth; on this account he considers that they seem to form a very natural group, as it is an extremely rare character in this family of butterflies. This fact rather upsets the familiar division of the Rhopalocera into Succincti, Suspensi and Involuti, in accordance with the mode of attachment of the pupe.



Southern California has its dry season in the summer, and comparatively few flowers are to be seen. Among those that remain, and are attractive to insects, the bushy species of Zriogonum are especially noteworthy, and I was fortunate in obtaining from them several bees.

Eriogonum fasciculatum was determined for me by Mrs. K. Brandegee. The Mt. Lowe species, which look very distinct from Sasciculatum, is kindly identified by Miss Susan G. Stokes as Z. SJasciculatum polifolium, “one of the intermediate forms.” This is the Z. polifolium of Bentham.

Prosopis polifolii, n. sp.— dg. Agrees with the description of P. Nevadensis (Psyche Suppt., June, 1896, p. 32) except in the following particulars: Clypeus and lateral marks very pale primrose yellow ; the lateral marks rather narrow, triangular, not or hardly notched by the antennai sockets, terminating above at a very acute angle with the orbital margin, though the apical point is rounded, the inferior inner side of the triangle at least not longer than the superior, sometimes visibly shorter ; flagellum ferruginous beneath ; wings clear, strongly iridescent. There is no vestige of a supraclypeal mark; clypeus much longer than broad, punctured and minutely roughened.

Hab.—Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe, Calif., about 5,000 ft., Aug. 12, 1901, on flowers of Zriogonum polifolium,; La Jolla, Calif., about 150 ft., August, 1901, on flowers of Eriogonum fasciculatum. The first- mentioned locality is to be regarded as typical. The species, having no supraclypeal mark, can only be confused with P. Mevadensis.

Ceratina Arisonensis, Ckll., 1898— 9. Similar to the ¢, but the face is black, with a broad longitudinal white stripe on the clypeus.

Hab.— Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe, Calif, about 5,000 ft., Aug. 12, on flowers of Eriogonum polifolium. New to California.

Perdita Claypolei, n. sp.—Q. Length, 5 mm.; head and thorax dark brassy green, with moderately abundant white hair; abdomen piceous, with broad straight transverse chrome-yellow bands at bases of


segments two to four, none of them reaching the lateral margins of the segments ; ventral surface dark. Head rather large, transversely oblong, broader than thorax ; face wholly dark; tront microscopically tessellate, with sparse distinct punctures; occiput with abundant white hair ; antenne short, dark, flagellum ferruginous beneath towards tip; anterior margin of prothorax above, and tubercles, cream-colour ; mesothorax and scutellum shining but microscopically lineolate, with very sparse punc- tures; base of metathorax minutely roughened; tegule tinged with brown ; wings short, reaching about to middle of fourth abdominal segment, the apical veinless field large; nervures dark brown; stigma centrally pale ; marginal cell obliquely truncate, its post-stigmatal portion largest; second submarginal cell large, narrowed about one-half to marginal ; third discoidal cell distinct ; legs piceous ; anterior knees and anterior tibize in front, cream-colour; apex of abdomen ferrugino